How Does a Phone System Work?

One of the greatest inventions of mankind is the telephone. Over the years, it has evolved into something that provides utmost convenience to its users. It does not only have the function of transmitting your voice from one end to another but it does that in a clear, wireless way.

How Does It Really Work?
Basically, it functions using what they call a PSTN or a Public Switch Telephone Network. This is a particular network that houses the use of numeric switches that allow signal transmission through fiber optic cables and wires. Fiber optic cables are the most flawless form of transmission and also the fastest which enables it to transmit signal even when there are information traffics.

A typical phone system has a receiver. This receiver can pick up signals. It also has a microphone-that mouthpiece with holes in it, that allows data to be converted. It will pass in the communication pathway to be delivered to the person you are calling. This is much the same process of wireless phones too. Only in wireless, they can utilize a satellite dish.

The Evolution Of PSTN
It has slowly evolved over the past few years. The first major change was pushed in the early 1960s. The then analog phone systems were adjusted into T1 carrier structures. Unlike the previous analog systems, this allows the use of 3 KHz of voice transmission signal. It is a wider voice channel but somehow it did not make it quite as big as what the inventors expected it to.

Digital transmission then progressed to the use of fiber optic cables. This kind of transmission cost much less than the analog ones which is why they were immediately embroced by the public.

Telephone Over IP
Now, there is also what we call the Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP. This allows users to call using the telephone but channeling through IP networks. This internet telephone system is now widely used due to its affordability and reliability. Even businesses now employ the use of VoIP.

There is a marked disadvantage despite. In comparison to the usual phones, if there is a power interruption, VoIP functions cease without you use UPS or Uninterruptible power supply. Also, with this type of phone system, you do not have a stationary and fixed address. This can be a problem if you want to call fire department or 911. However, the advantages still do outweigh the disadvantages.

Cascading Style Sheets and Email Display

Designing the HTML version of your email message can be difficult since there are so many different email client and operating system combinations out there – and they have their own way of rendering HTML. And there really is no way to be positively sure which client your readers will be using to view your messages.

If your reader has a Hotmail address, it’s generally safe to assume that he will be reading your message through the Hotmail web client. But what about your readers with private email addresses? Will they be using Microsoft Outlook? Will it be Outlook 2000, Outlook 2003 or Outlook 2007? Or maybe he’s using Lotus Notes? What if he had his TLD email forwarded to a Yahoo account? And is he using a Mac or a PC?

Since you don’t really know the answers to any of these questions, when designing your email campaigns it’s important that you always design for the most accessibility.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) offers the ability to make your email messages extremely graphic and enticing. Unfortunately, there is still limited support of r CSS with many email clients and across various platforms. One of the biggest CSS-offenders is Outlook 2007; and since studies show that up to 75% of email readers use Outlook, you just can’t ignore its rendering flaws.

Unfortunately, Outlook 2007 has no support for floating elements, which is widely used in CSS for positioning objects. So it’s based to use a table-based layout when designing your email campaigns. Think web design circa the year 2000. If you’re a new designer and have never dealt with tables before, you can get tons of how-to information from the W3C.

While Outlook 2007 does support the property, I don’t recommend that you use it to attach your style sheet. At least 50% of your readers will have their images turned off, which means any linked elements will not be linked – and this includes your external style sheet. Besides, Gmail, Live Mail and Hotmail don’t support linked elements, so it’s a good idea not to use them anyway. Instead, define all of your styles within your message and never rely on an external style sheet for your email messages.

Where, within the message, you should define your styles is another story altogether. Live Mail looks for the style sheet with the , Hotmail looks for the style sheet right below the tag. Outlook 2003, Outlook 2007, AOL, Yahoo, Entourage and Thunderbird will accept either placement, but Gmail doesn’t accept any of them.

The best option is to use in-line style tags. In-line style simply means that the style for each element must be defined individually. Instead of defining your style sheet within your head like this:

<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="http://www.mysite.com/style.css">

or even something like this:

<br /> <style type="text/css" media="screen"> <p><!--</p> <p>p {"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />georgia, serif; font-size:</p> <p>x-small;}</p> <p>hr {color: #ff9900; height: 1px }</p> <p>a:hover {color: #ff0000; text-decoration: none}</p> <p>--></p> </style> <p>

you would define each element individually, like this:

<p x-small color:> <p>This is your paragraph text.</p> <p>

When you’re defining those elements, keep in mind that not all CSS properties are supported across the board on all email clients. If you want to present a consistent message to all of your readers no matter how they are reading your mail, limit yourself to these CSS properties:

. background-color

. border

. color

. font-size

. font-style

. font-variant

. font-weight

. letter-spacing

. line-height

. padding

. table-layout

. text-align

. text-decoration

. text-indent

. text-transform

Those properties are supported on both Macs and PCs in:

. AOL

. Entourage

. Gmail

. Live Mail

. Outlook 2003

. Outlook 2007

. Thunderbird

. Yahoo

Properties to avoid include:

. background-image

. background-position

. background-repeat

. border-collapse

. border-spacing

. bottom

. caption-side

. clear

. clip

. cursor

. direction

. display

. empty-cells

. float

. font-family

. height

. left

. list-style-image

. list-style-position

. list-style-type

. margin

. opacity

. overflow

. position

. right

. top

. vertical-align

. visibility

. white-space

. width

. word-spacing

. z-index

And now for even more bad news: Lotus Notes and Eudora have terrible CSS support and even many of the widely-accepted CSS properties may not render properly. And since more and more readers are now accessing email on PDAs and other handheld devices, you can never be 100% certain how or where your message will be read. So I suggest you always use Multipart-Mime messaging, and always include a link to your text version within the html version of your message.

*** Want to keep these tips handy?

The Best Diet For Losing Pounds Fast

Looking for the best diet to follow for losing pounds fast? Most people can lose between 10 and 20 pounds within a month, simply by changing what and how they eat. You do not need to starve yourself to lose weight fast. Follow the healthy diet tips below and you'll be able to stay full, avoid hunger, control your appetite, limit food cravings, and boost your metabolism at all the same time …

7 of the Best Diet Tips for Losing Pounds Fast

1. Avoid simple sugars. By simply cutting simple sugars out of your diet, you can quickly and easily cut the kind of empty calories that make you fat and keep your from losing weight. Sodas, candy, packaged junk foods, and even fruit juices are all sources of simple sugar.

2. Avoid refined carbohydrates. Avoid refined carbs, especially "white" flours. Like simple sugars, these can spike blood sugar and insulin levels, shutting down the body's fat-burning processes and often leaving you with more belly fat!

3. Avoid "bad" fats. Fat itself is not your enemy. In fact you can eat a significant amount of fat and still lose weight quickly. But "bad" fats – like those found in fried foods and hydrogenated oils – will make you fat and unhealthy. Avoid fried foods and always choose "trans fat free" products.

4. Eat "clean burning" foods. The best foods to eat for fast and easy weight loss are "clean burning" proteins, carbs, and fats. Some examples are: lean meats, fish, eggs, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, beans, and legumes (eg lentils). Make these the basis of your diet and you'll lose pounds much faster.

5. Eat 5-7 times a day. Instead of 2 or 3 big meals, try to eat 5-7 small meals and snacks per day, spaced out at 2-3 hour intervals. This will help to keep you from getting hungry and experiencing food cravings. Plus it'll help to stimulate your metabolism so you burn fat more quickly.

6. Cycle your starches. Starchy carbs – like breads, potatoes, rice, etc. – should be cycled in and out of your diet in a way that boosts the metabolism and keeps you from gaining weight. Many diets are based on this proven idea, such as the "calorie shifting" and "calorie rotating" diets.

7. Drink lots of water. Try to drink at least 60-70 ounces of water and sugar-free tea each and every day. This will help to reduce hunger while boosting your metabolism and optimizing your energy levels.

Yamaha Star Bolt R-Spec 2015 – A Great Cruiser

Overview:

Yamaha has always created sophisticated and advanced two wheeled vehicles for the industry. It has some of the best bikes listed in its credits, and Star Bolt R-Spec is one of them. The powerful engine and its capacity to produce torque enable you to ride the bike on all tracks, no matter how bumpy or uneven they are. The sophisticated and up to date technology used in the bike is an evidence of the smartness of engineers of the company. The bike is designed in a way that enhances its overall performance and gives it an amazing outlook. The performance of this bike as a cruiser is wonderful in the presence of many special features, and can easily be enhanced with the help of accessories present in the market. The tank and side panels of the bike are printed with beautiful graphic designs that give an overall unique look to the bike. Yamaha has officially launched Start Bolt R-Spec in two different colors, which are, Raven Black and Matte Silver colors. All the parts of the bike are designed in a way that not only give it a beautiful look but also strength and durability.

Key Features:

This amazing powerful cruiser runs on a 942cc, air-cooled, SOCH, V-twin, 4 stroke, 4 valve engine. Yamaha has used wet-clutch technology in the bike to complement the capacity of engine. Some of the other key features of this bike include: transistor controlled ignition technology (TCI), rear dual piggyback shocks and telescopic fork on front, rear and front wave-type 298mm brake discs, low adjusted seat, digital speedometer, LED rear taillight, and 3.2 gallons fuel tank for a safe long ride. The bike gives fuel average of about 51mpg, which is good enough for such a heavy cruise bike. The low adjusted seat and positon of the handlebars allow rider to have a comfortable ride. Yamaha Star Bolt R-Spec comes with a limited 1 year company warranty. With all the standard equipment, oils, and fuel, the weight (wet weight) of this bike is 540 lb or 244.9kg.

ยท Accessories:

To make its bikes durable and give them great versatility, Yamaha produces a great number of accessories for all of its bikes. These accessories are easily available in the market at reasonable prices. These accessories are meant to enhance the function of the bike and gives it a beautiful look. Some of the accessories available for the Star range of Yamaha are:

o Engine Guards

o Bolt Fork Gaiters

o Deluxe side bag kit

o Luggage Rack

o Brass billet grips

o Brass rider footpegs

o Passenger seat kit

o Customize 40 spoke wheels

o Engine guards

o Chrome Led's lamp

o Bolt passenger backrest

Price:

The starting price of this bike is not much as compared to its features and technology. It is available in the market for $ 8,390.